Solar Structure
Ancient Text

New: Calendric Structure of Niasar

A r c h a e a s t r o n o m y  :


The Middle of Ancient World

Nimrouz land (Sistan/ Zarang/ Zavolestan) has a deep and long bond with Persian (Iranian) astronomy and calendar. It's different names come from its astrological applications. The name of "Zabol/ Zavol" had relation with sun reaching to zenith and it's measurement as the origin for day and night and the word "Mezvaleh" which means sun index came from the same root. It seems that the word "Zarang" (in Achaemenid cuneiform script: "Zaraka") has a relation with "halt" and "time" and the most important of all, the word "Nimrouz" roots from the ancient belief and wisdom that the "Nimrouzan" line or the meridian passes through this region.

Winged Globe

Achaemenid Empire Symbol

Everybody knows the ancient Winged Globe (Winged Disk). In it's common kind there is a globe with two wings at it's both sides and a god in the middle of that which sometime has a ring or flower in her hand and a star figure on top of her head .Winged Globe chart had been seen from ninth century BC at all western parts of Persian lands. But her different main parts like Globe, Wing, god had their own usage at more ancient times. >>>

Celestial Goddess of Ancient Persia (Iran)

Cassiopeia/ Cassiopee constellation is one of the constellations that are near Pole Star and can be seen at all night at northern celestial. In contrast with Pole Star Cassiopeia is proportion of Ursa Minors and Ursa Major these two are always rolling at tow sides of Pole Star. Cassiopeia's second and third groups of stars are more than other constellations so as a result it is one of the brightest constellations of celestial. Some of the stars of this constellation used to be more shinning and some of them had supernovas. One of these supernovas was Brahe that around 400 years ago suddenly it became so shiny that it could be seen even at daylights. Today knowledge has shown that Kappa star of Cassiopeia was the shiniest star of whole celestial but its exact time hasn't been defined yet .Powerful radiation fountains which are the result of Cosmology exploitations at Cassiopeia constellation has been founded.


A fight between

“Teshtar” and “Apoush” in sky

About 4000 years ago, Persian had too low rain and whether at that time so hot as a result some beliefs had grown up at ancient Persia (Iran). One of beliefs says “Teshtar” (Sirius) is responsible for raining and its opposite is “Apoush” (Cabalatrab/ Antares). In “Teshtar Yasht” (a part of Avesta) these two stars fight with each other (this is one of the oldest plays of mankind history). At this play some times Teshtar wins and sometimes Apoush.


Farr-e Kayani

From long times ago and between different nations and religious there was a tradition in their paintings. They draw a beams of light around the heads of their holly men and kings .In Iranian (Persian) believes and writings it is called Farr lightness from god is called Farr that whoever can have it has the capacity of being leadership .Sa¢ alebi called it “God's lucky lights”. In Avesta there is special part for describing and praying Farr. «Zamyad yasht/ kayan yasht/ Khvarena yasht» these are old parts of Avesta “we pray Mazda's Farr which is powerful, bright, adroit, deft, pious which is superior from all creatures”(Zamyad yasht, Part 9). Zamyad yasht`s alludes show that these parts are composed in west mountains of Iran (Persia) specially «Zabolestan/ Sistan/ Nimrouz». In Zamyad yasht more than praying Farr so many mountains of Iran has been alluded.



The Persian water's star

In Iranian (Persian) believes star or as it's called today planet Anahid/ Anahita/ Nahid (Venus) is flowing water's star and so Nahid`s temples have been made near rivers and water fountains. And also there is another character which as a result waters and its fountains and aqueducts belonged to her and she was supporter of them. The reason why in Iranian traditional believes water fountains were symbols of Anahid`s place and men can not go there is based on this believe. But one question arises here what has happened in nature that the believe of relation between water and rivers and Anahid`s star.  


And it's association with archeological polar star

Name of Mithra has been streamer at Persian culture and literature and by passing time have made a deep association with “Mehrizad” God of Kindness, Sun and  Friendship. But before it's activities get so vary it's most popular character was it endless brightness. Sources that we have show that this archeological star was the source of beliefs about Mithra. And for ancients who had a favor on cosmology a star hat never sets was very important and interesting.

  A r c h a e o l o g y :                                                    

Discovery of 3000-Years old

Board-Games and a Compass-Rose

in Persian Gulf’s Kharg Island


LONDON, (CAIS) -- An ancient four-pointed compass-rose showing directions of ‘four cardinal points’ and a number of board-games carved on rocks discovered in the Iranian island of Kharg in the Persian Gulf. The discovery was made by Shahram Eslami, a local and a member of Kharg’s Friends of Cultural Heritage. The relics were studied and their ancient origins identified by Dr . "The engravings are between 2000 and 3000 years old. The first discovered carving is located beside an ancient road which is a four-pointed compass-rose showing directions of four cardinal points within a square-shape with rounded angles setting, 50x50cm in diameters. Some sections of the compass-rose have been damaged, apparently as the result of a cracks in the rock," said Ghiasabadi. He added, "the compass-rose's lines have been placed in a position to determine the cardinal points, which have only two degrees of error based on the Global Positioning System (GPS)". “Thos is a unique discovery and a great deal of efforts and resources should be made available to safeguard the relic. Also we must not remove it from its original place," according to Ghiasabadi.


Aryans' Immigration

 in Relation to the Ancient Seas and the Weather of Persia

The overwhelming majority of historical sources regard the people of present Persia (Iran) descendants of Aryans who are thought to have migrated from some far northern land towards south including the present land of Persia, destroyed native people and civilizations and replaced them. The date of this great migration is speculated to be sometimes between 3000 to 5000 years ago. Similarly, speculations on the point of origin of this great history-making shift includes a vast area from west, north and center of Europe to east of Asia, Baltic Sea, Scandinavian peninsula, north plains of central Asia and Caucasus, Siberia and even the north pole. This very disagreement and lack of unquestionable evidences on the exact geographical homeland of these Aryans point to the soundlessness of such speculations. Most of contemporary historical texts end the account of the land of origin and this great migration with a few short obscure and inexact statements without giving any sound reasons for such an important move. They usually suffice to present a map with a few large arrows drawn from Siberia to Caspian Sea and central plains of Persia. >>>


The Persian new year

All through their many-thousand-years-old history, Iranians have considered their sacred and ultimate duty to preserve and celebrate the nature, as well as their human habitats in tranquility, freedom and joy. Therefore, many of their beliefs, rituals and festivities have their roots in the nature, getting their inspiration from this source. The ancient book of "Avesta", that is sacred to Iranians of all religious creeds, is a book dedicated to the praise of the natural entities such as sky, earth, sun, moon, water, wind, clouds, brooks, seas, plants and the animal kingdom. With a worldly outlook, and devoid of any hegemony, Avesta praises all the world's women and the men, regardless of where they are born,those who do strive for the realization of the truth, have endeavored in this way, or will do so in the future, those who sow fruitful plants in gorgeous paradises. The chants of this book are versed in the name of a grand God, Mithra, who is the guardian of love and promises and bestows families with peace, tranquility and happiness.


in Ancient Persia (Iran)

Week and weekdays have important application in calendar systems both solar and lunar. Even though world’s different calendars vary in many calculation details and other features, the method of reckoning based on seven-day week is the same in all of them. We know that number of days in a month or in a year is different in each calendar, even in the same calendar months different number of days, and we also know that during the history there have been reforms to change this. Number of days that are added in a leap year might also vary



at Ancient Persia (Iran)

Week and seven weekdays has a lot of usage at solar calendars although different calendars have different details but in all of them week with seven days are the same we know days of month and year differs at different calendars and during history they had changed and also Leap years have more days. Another important thing about week is that they never change at any calendar in other words weekly counting is the most accurate counting system this special characteristic has very important role on synchronizing different calendars. The only difference that they have is holiday (Friday to Monday) at different religions.


Gâhanbâr Calendar

The oldest calendar that has found in Persia (Iran)

In Old Persian (Iranian) epigones there are six yearly celebrations that are called “Gâhanbâr celebrations”. Name and time of these celebrations has been recorded differently that shows their long history. These celebrations they start at summer. In order are these: “Midyu- shem” that means middle of summer. “Patyah- shahim” means end of summer. “Ayâthrema” coldness starting, middle of fall. “Mid- yârem” means middle of year, end of fall (year starts in summer). “Hamaspat- madam” that means equality between day and night or equality between coldness and warmness, end of winter, spring equinox. “Midyu- zarem” means middle of green season or spring.

Chartaqi of Niasar

Calendric Structure of Niasar

Chartaqi of Niasar located near the city of Kashan and constructed during the late Parthian or early Sassanian Dynasties′ eras. Its plan is square in shap. This Chartaqi is one of the greatest and the oldest one in Iran-proper that remained intact for over 2000 years. It is plan is like quadrangle with sides that are 11.9 m. For the construction of this monument the ancient Persian (Iranian) architects used residual rocks, which contain holes within, and as the result they are lightweight and resilient to weather and especially earthquake, which is why after 2000 years in this earthquake region of Iran this monument is still standing.


Zoroaster’s Kaba, in Naqsh-e Rustam

The World’s Most Unique Ancient Calendrical Structure

An Iranian archaeologist has rejected the theory describing the Achaemenid era monument Zoroaster’s Kaba as an ancient government archive, saying that the monument is the world’s most unique calendrical and astronomical building. “At the end of Shahrivar (the sixth month of the Iranian calendar, August 23-September 22) we can determine exactly the day of the month by the light shed by the sun on Zoroaster’s Kaba. It has been used for daily needs, determining the time of cultivating crops, and collecting taxes,” explained .

La sauvegarde de la
Chronologie Iranienne
Tout au long de leur histoire, les Iraniens ont accordé une grande importance aux phénomènes naturels pour l’élaboration de leur calendrier. De l’Antiquité à nos jours, de nombreux systèmes chronologiques ont été successivement mis en place. Le système chronologique actuel de l’Iran (qui est un calendrier solaire) peut être considéré comme l’un des calendriers le plus exact du monde en lien étroit avec les cycles de la nature. En approfondissant les divers calendriers persans, une divergence se fait jour concernant leur premier jour ainsi que le nombre de jours de chaque mois. A titre d’exemple, là où la chronologie solaire est considérée comme la mesure de base, le premier jour est différent pour chacun des calendriers : calendrier Kouhdashti : le 4 Farvardin (23 mars), calendrier Tabari : le 2 Mordâd (23 juillet), calendrier Deylami : le 17 Mordâd (7 août), calendrier saisonnier de Kâshân et Natanz [1] : le 1 Esfand (19 février), etc. Néanmoins, l’important est que le titre et l’ordre des jours et des mois soient plus ou moins similaires dans tous ces calendriers. En outre, dans le calendrier persan chaque jour a son nom, 1er jour du mois s’appelle Hormoz, le 2ème jour Bahman, le 3ème jour Ordibehesht [2], même s’ils ne sont plus utilisés de nos jours. >>>

A New Character of

Old Persian Cuneiform

Found in Kharg Inscription

It seems that at some point it was decided to invent a new character for the ‘nko’ sound where the nasal ‘n’ was pronounced but not written. This new character was used in writing Sânkoŝâ in Kharg inscription. If this is correct (as it clearly can be seen in the picture), we can conclude that a new 37th character of the Late Old Persian cuneiform has been found


Kharg Inscription

Newly Discovered Achaemenid Inscription

The cuneiform inscription, comprising six words on six different horizontal lines inscribed on a piece of uneven rock encrusted with corals, has been found last week during a road construction project. Measuring about a meter square, the rock has become detached from its original terrain. Initial studies show the artefact dates back to the Achaemenid dynastic era (550-330 BCE). The first, second, fifth and sixth words are quite easily legible, but the third and fourth words are difficult to make out due to erosion, explained expert on ancient languages  . . .


Discovery of the Second

Persian Geometrical Inscription

The second Persian geometrical inscription which was carved in Kaftarli (Kaftarlou) hill have been discovered in Akhtarabad region in Shahryar. Due to the similarity of this geometrical writing with those previously found in Susa clay stamps and Jiroft’s inscription, experts estimate that this newly discovered geometrical inscription must have dated back to at least 5000 years ago. After Kan Charmee inscription which was discovered previous year in northern Kurdistan, this is the second geometrical inscription ever found in Iran. Regarding the antiquity of this inscription, , archeologist and researcher, says: “Based on the signs implemented in creating this geometrical writing and its similarity to Susa stamps, it is believed that it must have belonged to 4200 to 4500 years ago. On the other hand, due to the rate of oxidization, we give the possibility that the inscription must have been more ancient.”